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In the 13th century BC, however, invasions from the Balkans (the so-called sea people ) destroyed Troy VII, and Central and Western Anatolia as a whole fell into what is generally called the period of "Anatolian" and "Greek" Dark Ages of the Bronze Age collapse. From the 7th century onwards, Smyrna achieved the identity of a city-state. About a thousand people lived inside the city walls, with others living in nearby villages, where fields, olive trees, vineyards, and the workshops of potters and stonecutters were located. People generally made their living from agriculture and fishing. The most important sanctuary of Old Smyrna was the Temple of Athena, which dates back to 640–580 BC and is partially restored today. Smyrna, by this point, was no longer a small town, but an urban center taking part in the Mediterranean trade. The city eventually became one of the twelve Ionian cities and was well on its way to becoming a foremost cultural and commercial center in the Mediterranean basin of that period, reaching its peak between 650–545 BC. [. delta; to the east along an alluvial plain created by several small streams; and to slightly more rugged terrain in the south. [4]. that is indigenous to the Middle East and northeastern Africa, which was the city's chief export in antiquity. [12]. Alexander the Great re-founded the city at a new location beyond the Meles River around 340 BC. Alexander had defeated the Persians in several battles and finally the Emperor Darius III himself at Issus in 333 BC. Old Smyrna on a small hill by the sea was large enough only for a few thousand people. Therefore, the slopes of Mount Pagos ( Kadifekale ) was chosen for the foundation of the new city, for which Alexander is credited, and this act lay the ground for a resurgence in the city's population. Clockwise from top: View of İzmir at night from Balçova, Gündoğdu Square, aerial view of İzmir in the evening, outlook from Asansör in Karataş, Gulf of İzmir viewed from Kadifekale, Karşıyaka, and İzmir Clock Tower in Konak Square. and is reported to have burned and destroyed parts of the city, although recent analyses on the remains in Bayraklı demonstrate that the temple has been in continuous use or was very quickly repaired under Lydian rule. Things to do near SC Inn Boutique Hotel. Smyrna, a name which remained in use in English and other foreign languages until the Turkish Postal Service Law ( Posta Hizmet Kanunu ) of 28 March 1930 came into effect, which sought to make the Turkish name İzmir the internationally recognized name of the city in most languages. However, the historic name Smyrna is still used today in some languages, such as Greek (Σμύρνη, Smýrnē ), Armenian (Զմյուռնիա, Zmyurnia ), Italian ( Smirne ), and Spanish ( Esmirna ). İzmir and Smyrna have more than 3,000 years of recorded urban history, and up to 8,500 years of history as a human settlement since the Neolithic period. Lying on an advantageous location at the head of a gulf running down in a deep indentation, midway along the western Anatolian coast, it has been one of the principal mercantile cities of the Mediterranean Sea for much of its history. İzmir hosted the Mediterranean Games in 1971 and the World University Games (Universiade) in 2005. At the dawn of İzmir's recorded history, Pausanias describes "evident tokens" such as "a port called after the name of Tantalus and a sepulchre of him by no means obscure", corresponding to the city's area and which have been tentatively located to date. [16]. İzmir's metropolitan area extends along the outlying waters of the Gulf of İzmir and inland to the north across the Gediz River. İzmir hosted the Mediterranean Games in 1971 and the World University Games ( Universiade ) in 2005. In March 2008, İzmir submitted its bid to the BIE for hosting the Universal Expo. Homer, referred to as Melesigenes meaning "TEEN of the Meles Brook", is said to have been born in Smyrna in the 7th or 8th century BC. Combined with written evidence, it is generally admitted that Smyrna and Chios put forth the strongest arguments in claiming Homer and the main belief is that he was born in Ionia. A River Meles, still bearing the same name, is located within the city limits, although associations with the Homeric river is subject to controversy. Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center - Twentynine Palms. Nearby ancient site of Klazomenai in Urla, slightly outside İzmir urban zone, is associated with some of the oldest known records of trade in olive oil. Mýrrha, corresponding to the later Ionian and Attic Σμύρνα ( Smýrna ) or Σμύρνη ( Smýrnē ), both presumably descendants of a Proto-Greek form *Smúrnā. Some would see in the city's name a reference to the name of an Amazon called Smyrna said to have seduced Theseus, leading him to name the city in her honor. [11]. Karabel rock-carving of the Luwian local leader "Tarkasnawa, King of Myra" is near Kemalpaşa, a few kilometres to the east of İzmir. 2015, but it was won by Milan, Italy. The city of İzmir is composed of several metropolitan districts. Of these, the district of Konak corresponds to historical İzmir, with this district's area having constituted the city's central "İzmir Municipality" ( Turkish: İzmir Belediyesi ) until 1984. With the formation of the "İzmir Metropolitan Municipality" ( Turkish: İzmir Büyükşehir Belediyesi ), the city of İzmir grouped together its eleven (initially nine) urban districts– namely Balçova, Bayraklı, Bornova, Buca, Çiğli, Gaziemir, Güzelbahçe, Karabağlar, Karşıyaka, Konak, and Narlıdere– and consolidated them with the province's additional districts outside the city proper, extending from Bergama in the north to Selçuk in the south, bringing the total number of districts considered part of İzmir's metropolitan area to thirty. This article is about the city in Turkey. For the province in Turkey, see İzmir Province. For the ancient Greek and New Testament period of that city, see Smyrna. In classical antiquity the city was known as. Soon afterwards, an invasion from outside Anatolia by the Persian Empire effectively ended Old Smyrna's history as an urban center of note. The Persian emperor Cyrus the Great attacked the coastal cities of the Aegean after conquering the capital of Lydia. As a result, Old Smyrna was destroyed in 545 BC.